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  Differences between bashrc and profile in Linux

After login to a Linux system, the command console will show up with a prompt label such as # or ~, a shell command can be typed after this prompt and the system can execute the command thereafter. All these operations are handled by shell. Shell is a command language interpreter that executes commands read from the standard input device (keyboard) or from a file. There are different types of shells such as bash, ksh, csh etc. The most commonly used of them is bash and it's also the de...

1,916 0 0          LINUX PROFILE BASH BASHRC .BASHRC .PROFILE


  Unix directory hierarchy history

As a beginner user of Unix or Linux, people would frequently get confused about the use of different directories of the system.  For example, there is a /bin directory under root(/), it is used to store binary files. However, there are /usr/bin and /usr/local/bin under /usr which are used for storing binary files as well. Some systems even have /opt/bin. What are the differences among them? Though there are articles explaining different directories in *nix such as Filesystem Hierarchy Stan...

2,920 0 0          LINUX HISTORY UNIX FILESSYTEM DIRECTORY HIERARCHY


  Linus Torvalds apologizes for Linux 4.8 kernel bug

On Oct 2, Linus Torvalds proudly announced the release of Linux 4.8. But just days after the release, a bug was found in the kernel and Linus came out and apologized for this bug. I'm really sorry I applied that last series from Andrew just before doing the 4.8 release, because they cause problems, and now it is in 4.8 (and that buggy crap is marked for stable too). In particular, I just got this kernel BUG at ./include/linux/swap.h:276 and the end result was a dea...

1,238 0 0          LINUX LINUX KERNEL NEWS LINUS TORVALDS BUG_ON


  Using public key authentication in SSH

SSH is a popular cryptographic network protocol for secure network service operation. It is frequently used in remote server login. For a system administrator or software developer, SSH is frequently used to access remote servers or development servers or testing servers etc.  To login with SSH, there are different authentication mechanisms : password, public key and interactive etc. If a remote server needs to be accessed frequently, password authentication may be too troublesome as p...

1,056 0 0          LINUX DEBUG SSH PUBLIC KEY


  Format JSON data on Ubuntu

JSON now becomes a very popular data format because of its simplicity and light-weight. Nowadays many RESTful APIs will offer a choice of exchanging JSON data between the server and client. Sometimes the data may not be formatted and it cannot be easily read by human beings. It's frequently desired that the unformatted JSON data should be formatted before read. Today we will show a few ways to format JSON data on Ubuntu. Assume we have a json file test.json with below content. { "title": "Test"...

1,625 0 0          UBUNTU LINUX RUBY PYTHON NODEJS PERL JSON JQ YAJL


  VirtualBox Q&A(Host OS: Windows; Guest OS: Ubuntu)

This is a Q&A post after sharing Guide for installing Ubuntu in VirtualBox on Windows 1. If the resolution of the installed guest OS on the VirtualBox is too small(For example 640x480) and you cannot adjust it through System Settings -> Display, what should you do? A: In this case, it is mostly probably you don't have the VirtualBox Guest Additions installed. You can install the Guest Additions on your guest OS by: sudo apt-get install virtualbox-guest-dkms Then restart the VM and you wil...

5,019 0 0          VIRTUALBOX HOST ONLY RESOLUTION Q&A STATIC IP


  Create host only network on VirtualBox

Previously we showed how to install Ubuntu in VirtualBox. What if we want to communicate with the host OS from within the Guest OS on VirtualBox? There are a few ways to do this. For example, bridged network, Host only networks. Today we will show you how to enable network communication between host OS and guest OS using host only networks. A host only network will not need to access the physical network interface of the host OS. It will create a network between different virtual machines and th...

1,826 1 0          VIRTUALBOX NETWORK VIRTUAL MACHINE HOST-ONLY


  Install and setup vsftpd on AWS server

When developing websites, frequently we may need to upload source codes to the remote server. To ease of thew work, many website developers set up FTPs to upload the files. This post is a tutorial on how to install and setup vsftpd on a server. vsftpd is a very popular FTP service on Unix-like systems. Open command terminal, then install the vftpd by issuing command yum install vsftpd or sudo apt-get install vsftpd After installing the vsftpd, the config file needs to be updated based on the ope...

3,728 0 0          FTP VSFTPD AWS PASSIVE ACTIVE